In civil Law News the sources recognised as authoritative are, primarily, legislation—especially codifications in constitutions or statutes passed by government—and custom. Codifications date back millennia, with one early example being the Babylonian Codex Hammurabi. Modern civil law systems essentially derive from legal codes issued by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century, which were rediscovered by 11th century Italy.
- Real property, sometimes called ‘real estate’, refers to ownership of land and things attached to it.
- In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply.
- This distinction is stronger in civil law countries, particularly those with a separate system of administrative courts; by contrast, the public-private law divide is less pronounced in common law jurisdictions.
- Readers will welcome the detailed commentary of segregation laws in the first part which makes for